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Transparent Conductive Oxide – TCO Coatings

Production Spray Pyrolysis
TCO Production Scale Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Equipment


The Impact Array system uses patented, proprietary ultrasonic nozzles combined with Sono-Tek’s Impact spraying shaping technology, to deposit uniform layers of ITO, AZO, or ZnO in spray pyrolysis applications. These layers have typically been deposited using CVD vapor deposition or sputtering deposition processes. This new ultrasonic spray pyrolysis system gives manufacturers a viable alternative to these costly, complicated vacuum deposition techniques.

Ultrasonic spray is used to deposit TCO conductive layers in a
number of different applications, including:

  • Thin film photovoltaic manufacturing
  • Smart windows – electrochromic glass
  • Touch panel screens
  • Flat panel displays
  • LED lighting products
  • Electronic security sensors

TCO Layer Process

Spray pyrolysis deposition methods require high temperature reactions, requiring heat tolerances of up to 600 degrees Celcius substrate temperatures. Sono-Tek’s new Inline Impact TCO coating system is able to meet the difficult corrosive and high temperature challenges of these spray applications. Cooled liquid paths protect ultrasonics and nozzle components from high temperatures.

The system uses a state-of-the-art control tower with HMI touch screen interface and Windows-based software for complete control of spray parameters and programming functions.

The Impact Array system features an array of Sono-Tek’s Cobalt A12 Series ultrasonic nozzles, fabricated with corrosive resistant materials of construction for non-clogging, repeatable, long life performance. Ultrasonic nozzles feature controllable, repeatable spray performance, very high effective transfer of materials with very little overspray, and highly uniform, homogenous thin films without clogging. Sono-Tek ultrasonic spray systems are well known for spraying very thin uniform layers in electronics and advanced energy applications worldwide.

R&D systems for depositing TCO chemistries are also available.


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